Hand-dug Well, Guinea Bissau

Bigene is a sector in the Cacheu Region of Guinea-Bissau. With just over 1082 km of land area, it inhabits a population of around 8000 including animals and wild life. 
Hand-Dug wells are the most traditional way to obtain ground water in remote locations and to date is still a common practice in developing nations. 

The advantages are that the tools can be locally sourced

The tools required are pick, shovel and a bucket on a rope to remove cuttings, this method of extracting water is only suitable for locations with certain rock types such as sand stones and clay. 

The hand-dug well is excavated below the water table and is lined with stones, bricks, tiles, or other material to prevent the walls from collapsing. 

The well itself serves as a reservoir for the locals and replenishes itself from aquifers when the water demand is not required from the locals.

The hand-dug well is then covered with a cap of wood, stone, or concrete to reduce chances of contamination. The last step is to install a hand-pump, used by the locals to extract the water from the well. 

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